Dale Fort Blog Number 48

19 10 2017

Some Highlights of a Walk Around

The Dale Peninsula

Part 1:  Dale Fort to Mill Bay. 

The original Dale Fort:

The ditch and bank cutting off the narrowest part of the peninsula (by the gate leading to the coast path) dates back to before The Iron Age.  A carbon fragment was dated to 790 BC, which is the earliest radio-carbon date from a promontory fort in Pembrokeshire.  The structure is at least 2700 years old and would have been used as an easily defended refuge when baddies attacked.  Professor Grimes and his teams found huge post-holes for a massive gate estimated at 4m high, in the middle of the bank.  Both bank and ditch are less impressive than they were.   In use, the bank would probably have been topped with defensive spikes.

More recent investigations have found the outline of a huge (12m) circular structure, other habitation surfaces, a possible track and some pot-boilers (stones heated in a fire, used for heating water).

The wooden bridge over Castle Beach Stream:

Did this tiny stream make this big valley?  If not what did?  It was made by massive quantities of melt-water pouring into the sea as temperatures rose at the end of the last Ice Age about 8-10,000 years ago.

The lime kiln:

Old Red Sandstone produces an acid soil.  It can be raised in pH and rendered more productive by the application of calcium hydroxide.   You can find similar structures all over the parts of Pembrokeshire that have acid soils and coastal access.  They were fuelled with coal mined in the middle part of the county and charged with limestone chippings (waste material from the limestone quarries of South Pembrokeshire).  Heating limestone turns it into quicklime.  (CaCO3 = CO2 + CaO).  Quicklime is nasty skin corroding stuff, but if it gets wet it turns into calcium hydroxide, (CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2).  This is a less intimidating mild alkali that can be applied to the soil to increase its pH and improve yields.  Nowadays farmers buy their lime from agricultural chemical companies.

The irrigation pond just before Watwick Bay:

It is man-made, (you will probably be standing on the bund) and used for irrigation by pumping water up onto the fields with a tractor engine.  It’s very expensive but can get the early potato crop to mature a few weeks earlier and get in the shops before anyone else’s does.  This maximises profits as there is a premium on early new potatoes.  Well, it used to but nowadays aeroplanes import new potatoes from places like Israel and Egypt which have a mild climate and produce spuds all year round.  It still has a useful function as a cattle drink and as an extremely rich freshwater invertebrate sampling site for Dale Fort.  A human built thing with a biological conservation bonus.

Watwick Beacon:

Most of what you see as Milford Haven is shallow water.   As sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age the flood plain of the ancient River Cleddau was inundated, forming The Haven as we see it today; a ria.  The only really deep water (up to 30m) follows the course of the original river.  This structure when aligned with the central post of a further set of 3 similar lights at West Blockhouse Point (just up the coast) helps the Pilots of oil and gas tankers keep their vessels within the deep part of the channel.  The very long jetty of South Hook LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Terminal reaches out across the ancient flood plain to the deep part of the channel.  This is the third highest lighthouse in Europe, a fact so obscure and unimpressive that I can’t have made it up (but I can’t remember where I got it from).

The LNG plant at South Hook (to the north) can import and re-gasify up to a third of the UK’s gas requirements.  Each of the 5 big round tanks is about the size of The Albert Hall.

Watwick Bay:

Notice the angle of the layers of sedimentary rocks:  They tilt roughly southwards  on the North side of the bay and roughly northwards on the South side revealing a down-fold or syncline.  The rocks at the bottom of this down-fold have been crushed and weakened, which is why the bay has eroded here.  The rocks in the middle of the bay are very jumbled up for this reason.  You might also notice the raised beach, about 10m up the cliff, revealing a higher sea level in past times.

West Blockhouse:

If it’s not too misty you can see the remains of East Blockhouse on the coast opposite.  This together with the original West Blockhouse was a Device Fort.  These were the first defences designed for artillery on The Haven and date from the 1580s.  The earlier tower at West Blockhouse was lost when the current Victorian fort was built in 1852.  West Blockhouse, Thorne Island and Dale Fort were built to cross-fire with one another and deny access to The Haven.  They were designed to repulse sailing ships, which were becoming obsolete by the time they were completed.  (They are in fact the last structures designed with the repulsion of sailing ships in mind ever built in the UK).  The original armament was 6 smooth-bore sixty-eight-pound muzzle loading cannons (Dale Fort had 7 of the same type of gun).  In 1901, the battery was altered to house 4 five-inch breech loading rifled guns and 2 three pound quick-firing guns on the roof.  Then, in 1905, two 9.2” Mark X guns and three 6” Mark VII guns replaced them.   The later guns are concealed behind earth- banks at the rear of the Victorian structure.  In World War Two West Blockhouse was the Port Examination Battery.  Its function was to confirm the credentials of shipping wishing to enter Milford Haven.  The building has been restored by The Landmark Trust and you can rent it out for holidays (it sleeps 12 and costs A LOT more than Dale Fort).  (You can still find WW2 green paint and concrete lumps on the glacis installed as camouflage).

Mill Bay:

On the way notice the highly eroding parts of the cliffs.  Notice the remains of the old fence and coast path halfway down the cliff.  In 1485 Mill Bay was where Henry Tudor landed and less than a couple of weeks later ended the Wars of the Roses by defeating Richard III at Bosworth Field.

Extra stuff about Henry Tudor:

He was born at Pembroke Castle and had a tenuous claim to the English throne.  As a result, there was serious concern for his safety and he spent most of his early life in France.  On the 1st of August 1485 he sailed from Harfleur with 2000 French mercenaries and a few English exiles.  He had decided to stake his claim to the throne of England.

Some of Henry’s men knew the Pembrokeshire coast and Mill Bay, less than two miles from Dale Point was chosen as a landing site.  It is probably not too fanciful to suppose that the only Welsh king of England rode within spitting distance of where Dale Fort is now on his way to Bosworth Field.  Legend has it that he stopped for a drink at St. Ishmaels (from what was subsequently called “The King’s Well”).

Having landed on the evening of August 7th he and his men had reached Bosworth Field in Leicestershire and defeated Richard III by August 22nd.  A story survives concerning local landowner Rhys ap Thomas of Carew Castle.  Rhys had sworn allegiance to Richard III promising the king that only over my bellie would Henry Tudor get beyond his bit of Pembrokeshire.  Rhys did not want to be thought of as the sort of chap who would break his word to the king but as a Welshman he also supported Henry Tudor.  As a compromise measure, he waited for Henry and his men at Mullock Bridge on the road out of Dale.  As Henry reached the bridge Rhys lay down, bellie up, in the mud underneath the bridge, so Henry in crossing literally passed over his bellie.  Rhys then changed allegiance and joined Henry on the march to Bosworth.  He is one of several claimants to the ‘honour’ of having struck the final blow to Richard III.

An account of the Battle of Bosworth Field states that the body of Richard was subjected to many indignities.  If Rhys was happy to both bludgeon the life out of the old king and have a ripping time desecrating his corpse, why did he bother slithering about in the slime beneath Mullock Bridge?  A similar story exists concerning the Shrewsbury Bailiff, Thomas Milton.  Henry crossed the River Severn at Shrewsbury where Milton had vowed that Henry would enter the town only over his dead body.  As Henry entered the town Milton feigned death and allowed the King’s horse to step over him.  These symbolic gestures indicate that there was a fair body of opinion that Henry was going to win

Rhys was well rewarded for his efforts.  He spent vast sums on home improvements at Carew Castle and in 1507 organized a Royal Tournament.  This remains the biggest party that Wales has ever seen.  Henry and the court turned up and lots of people ended up with immense hangovers.

There are no records of Henry VII doing anything about the defences of Milford Haven.  This is not surprising in that most of Henry VII’s troubles came from within his kingdom, there was little threat of invasion from without.  Having dealt with the remaining Yorkists, Henry died in 1509.  On the whole Britain was a richer, more peaceful place than it had been before.  All the action happened the beginning of his reign.  In his irreverent history John O-Farrell sub-titles the section on Henry VII thus:

Cry havoc and let loose the dogs of accountancy!

If it’s low tide you might see a ship wreck.  It was a boom patrol vessel; Milford Haven had a protective boom with anti-submarine netting during WW2.  This ship patrolled the boom and opened and closed the gates.  It was being towed off to be scrapped which broke its tow-line and ended up here.  Nobody got hurt which is more than you can say for Richard III.

Venture beyond Mill bay in the next blog.





Dale Fort Blog Number 47

30 11 2015

Autumn Starlings at Dale Fort

Regular readers (if there are any) may remember Blog Number 18 which was all about the Pembrokeshire Island of Grassholm.



Grassholm is best known as the home of tens of thousands of gannets. It is the third biggest colony in the northern hemisphere with about 12% of the world’s population.

Grassholm is also enchanted (or it was in The Bronze Age) and Bedigaid Fran (well just his severed head actually) and his colleagues spent 80 years there some 2000-odd years ago. How he ended up on the island was at least in part due to a starling.

A detail that was omitted from the story given in Blog Number 18 (see above) is that Branwen (Bendigaid Fran’s sister) started all the trouble via a message sent from Ireland, delivered by a starling. The Mabinogion does not make it clear whether the starling carried a tiny message on its leg, or in its bill, or spoke to him directly. I suspect the latter.

The link below will take you to my video of huge numbers of starlings massing and murmurating and converting all the invertebrates into bird-poo fertilizer in a small corner of Pembrokeshire near Dale Fort.


Many thanks to You’re Not Percy for the starlingy music.

Watch out for the next blog, coming soon.

Dale Fort Blog Number 46

27 11 2015


Scallops: Delicious, expensive, take ages to grow (5 years or more) and extremely vulnerable to scallop dredging.

Scallop dredging involves dragging about half a tonne of steel sledge over the sea bed, churning it all up and provoking the scallops to shoot off (see the video below) and get caught in the dredge.  It catches lots of scallops and pretty much annihilates everything else.

Scallop dredging was banned in The Skomer Marine Reserve (now Special Area of Conservation) some 20 years ago.  There is a fine of £5000 if you are caught poaching them.  The population is still recovering.  Numbers are still climbing after two decades of protection.  The benefits of not being regularly blatted by scallop dredges are good for everything else too.


Many thanks to Andy Davies for the use of his video and to Your Not Percy for the scallopy music.

There is a move afoot to expand scallop dredging in the Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation.  This will not be good news for the scallops or anything else that gets in the way.  Marine conservation is really simple:  If you leave it alone it gets better.

I think if we are going to declare an area a Special Area of Conservation it would probably be better not to plough it to death with steel sledges.  If you want to put your views to The Welsh Assembly Government, you have until February 16th 2016 and you can do so here:


Look out for the next blog coming soon….

Dale Fort Blog Contents 1 to 50

26 11 2015
 Number 46
They’ve got anything up to 100 blue eyes and they’re jet-propelled.  They’re in
danger.  Help them.  Read this blog.
Number 47
Amazing Autumnal starling-related shenanigans at near Steve’s house.
Number 48
Walk around the Dale Peninsula and stay dry.  Part 1:  Dale Fort to Mill Bay.
Number 49
Number 50
More on the history of Dale Fort.  Concerning the building of the present structure.

Dale Fort Blog Number 45

26 11 2015

Autumn Fungi

Some of the creatures in this short video are lichens of course but since fungi are the dominant partner in most lichens I’ve put them in.  Thanks to The Ruff Winkles for the fungal music (Carulli, Opus 34, Largo No.6, available on CD and highly recommended).


“Ahh…”  I hear you say:  “There are some algae that have relationships with fungi where the fungus is dominated by the alga”.

“You are entirely correct” I say:

Pelvetia canaliculata and Ascophyllum nodosum (channeled wrack and egg wrack) in North West Europe are seemingly universally hosts of Mycosphaerella ascophyllii (a fungus).  It betrays its presence when fertile by showing up as little black dots on the fronds of the algae.  Some lichenologists go so far as to claim that P. canaliculata and A.nodosum are not algae but lichens where the dominant partner is the alga rather than the fungus.  What it does show is that living things are always inordinately more complicated in their relationships with each other and with the physical environment than we think.

To this day the language of biology is suffused with expressions like nature red in tooth and claw, survival of the fittest, and so on.  Such ideas have been used by humans to justify all manner of repulsive and vile behaviors.  Living creatures do of course eat each other and those that leave behind lots of offspring tend to pass their characteristics onto the next generation more successfully than those that don’t. However, life is also full of examples of cooperation and mutualism. Our very cells are powered by mitochondria which are probably the result of a conjunction of two different forms of life many millions of years ago. Chloroplasts are thought to have originated in a similar way. Most trees have mutualistic relationships with fungi in the form of mycorrhizae. Fungi grow as nodules on the roots or inside the root tissue and help liberate nutrients that the tree can access. Baby termites cannot digest their food (wood) until they have licked their mother’s bottom and swallowed to infuse their guts with the bacteria that provide the appropriate enzymes.

On that rather disturbing note we end this blog.  Look out for the next one which hopefully will appear before Christmas.

Dale Fort Blog Number 44

3 11 2015

Bill Ballantine

Bill B croppedIt was with great sadness that we learned yesterday of the death of Bill Ballantine.

Bill is world famous for his astonishing efforts for marine conservation. His life was dedicated to the conservation and preservation of the marine environment and he was instrumental in establishing the world’s first no-take marine reserve off Goat Island near Auckland.

The New Zealand Environment Minister Dr Nick Smith said this:

Bill was the father of marine conservation in New Zealand. Our 1971 Marine Reserves Act – an international first – was his brainchild, as was our first no-take reserve at Leigh. He remained a forceful advocate for the protection of our marine environment and leaves behind a proud legacy. The first step that Bill persuaded us to take as a country 40 years ago has to be acknowledged as the seed for New Zealand’s strong reputation today as a world leader in the responsible use and management of our ocean environment.

He was awarded an MBE for services to marine conservation in 1999.

Bill also had a long and happy association with Dale Fort Field Centre which he described as his second home.

In the mid 1950s as a sixth former he worked in his summer holidays at Dale Fort. He helped in the kitchens, he helped in the grounds, he helped maintain buildings, he was knocked out half-way up a cliff by a rock dislodged by the over-enthusiastic boot of the then warden John Barrett.

He is first mentioned by name in by John Barrett’s annual report for 1957 – 58:

Mr W J Ballantine, now of Queen Mary College continued work on gastropods, particularly in relation to exposure

This was a reference to Bill’s work on limpets which ultimately led to his PhD (The population dynamics of Patella vulgata and other limpets, 1961)

Read it here

Almost as a bi-product, his studies led to possibly the most famous paper in the whole of marine ecology:

A Biologically Defined Exposure Scale for the Comparative Description of Rocky Shores

It had been long established that exposure to wave action was a vital factor in determining the patterns of organisms that are so characteristic of rocky shores. Attempts to measure wave action in physical terms were (and still are) fraught with technical difficulties. How then could different shores be compared with regard to this important physical factor? Bill noticed that the shores around Dale were inhabited by different communities depending on how much wave action they received. He determined to visit every shore he could get to on the Dale Peninsula and survey the species there.

He then devised a scale which used the assemblage of organisms on a shore as indicators of the degree of wave action (exposure) that the shore endured. The shore is then allocated a number to indicate its position on the scale. Ballantine’s Scale runs from 1 (= extremely exposed) to 8 (= extremely sheltered).

The scale has had its critics but has still proved extremely useful over the half-century of its existence. It has fulfilled its original aim to provide a means for ecologists to describe easily different rocky shores to one another. It probably appears in more reference lists than any similar paper.

Read it here

After completing his PhD he took a post in 1964 as the inaugural Head of The Leigh Marine laboratory of The University of Auckland in New Zealand.

He returned to Dale Fort every few years to keep an eye on our limpet populations.

In 1968, David Emerson became the second Warden of Dale Fort.

One of David’s first acts was to strike a blow for practical conservation by demolishing the rubbish chute down which all waste had been thrown into the sea. This was a substantial structure made of old railway lines and timber and required serious effort to remove. The job was done with explosives by the army as part of the Military Aid to the Civil Community Scheme. Bill was on one of his periodic visits and helping out when he got clouted on the head by a lump of concrete. He recalled staggering semi-conscious from the top of the cliff through the kitchen door, covered in blood and being told by an irate cook to stop bleeding all over the bloody floor.

I first met Bill in 1986 when I was a new marine ecology tutor and he was on a year’s sabbatical based at Dale Fort and spent largely touring around Britain and Europe campaigning strenuously for marine conservation. I completed my PhD that year and he generously offered to read it and give me some pointers before the viva. He kept it for a couple of weeks and returned it to me with a thick sheaf of clinically precise notes in which picked various aspects apart and (more importantly for me at the time) he talked me through it all and advised me how to defend various points. I shall always be grateful for his kindness and I still have his hand-written notes.

Towards the end of that year Bill probably saved Dale Fort. We were pioneering a Christmas field course, which featured massive log fires (there was no central heating then). One of my jobs was to keep the fires roaring, pretty much day and night. I wandered into the library early one morning to find it full of smoke. Some unknown person had overloaded the grate and a burning log had rolled off and set alight the wooden fender around the fireplace. Before I could react, Bill sprinted in through the smoke bearing a jug of water, he emptied it over the fender and disappeared in a cloud of steam as the flames were doused. Later that morning the course members went for a walk with David.  Bill and I took a break to sit in front of the (back under control) library fire for half an hour to howl with laughter at a old Goon Show on Radio 4.

At that time my intent was to leave Dale Fort after 2 years and get a “proper job”. Bill gave me a long talk about the differences between a job’s seeming status and its importance. It took him a while but eventually even I realised what he was talking about. How could anyone who purported to care about ecology, science and marine conservation, turn their back on the opportunity I had been given?  It worked, because half lifetime later, I’m still here, still learning and I’m still trying my best to promulgate Environmental Understanding for All, what’s more I’m still enjoying it. So thank you Bill.

I last saw him in 2007 on what was to become his final visit to Dale Fort. By this time even he had acknowledged that he was not as agile as he used to be. He asked if I would help him down onto Dale Point to collect his limpet samples. Needless to say he didn’t really need my help at all but it was a privilege to be there. I was also privileged to hear a great truth dispensed in the most amusing way I can imagine. “Is that OK Bill?” I asked (having collected a sample for him). “Let me check Steve” he said “because after all, limpets are my f*****g business”.

He will be much missed.








Dale Fort Blog Number 43

13 09 2015

The History of Dale Fort

Part The Tenth

Readers with long memories may remember that there has been a series of articles concerning the history of Dale Fort (the last one was number 35). We are now up to Number 43 and I thought it was time we took up the story again.

We left this long and sinuous saga at the point where Britain had been startled by the political successes of Charles Louis Napoleon. The Emperor Napoleon III as he was now called had struck fear into the hearts of British Politicians who decided that they had better set about defending the parts of the nation where they thought his forces might invade. One of these was Milford Haven (see Blog Number 35 for more details:https://dalefort.wordpress.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=472&action=edit)

Defence of the Dockyard

At first the dockyard was defended by Royal Marines who were lucky enough to live on a hulk on one of the slipways. Around 1845 work began on a new barracks on the hill overlooking the dockyard. This was to be called Treowen Barracks but eventually became known as The Defencible Barracks. The idea was to both create accommodation for the marines (380) and provide defences for the dockyard. Owing to the slow rate of fire of muzzle loading muskets a total of 712 musketry loops were incorporated into the walls. It was completed around 1850.

DB with caption

Inside DB with caption

Three gun towers were then built as a more serious attempt to defend the dockyard. These are known as Martello Towers (after similar structures which had frustrated a British Naval action at Cape Mortella in Corsica in 1794). Two towers flanked the whole length of the dockyard wall (except for a small bit, which had musketry loops cut in it).

E and W towers with captionThe third tower was at Stack Rock, a small island guarding the entrance to the Cleddau.   Stack Rock tower was finished in 1852 and is now completely concealed inside the later structure, Stack Rock Fort.

SRock with tower and caption

Defence of Milford Haven

The general aim now was to deny entrance to the Haven completely. Three new structures were to be built at Dale Point, West Blockhouse and Thorne Island. These forts would be able to provide crossfire and thus cover the entrance to the Haven. The three structures were the last ever built to defend the Haven against sailing ships. These forts were novel in design in that they were constructed to take advantage of the natural shape of the rock they were built on and so derive protection from it. The barrack blocks at Dale are concealed behind the cliffs of Dale Point. Thorne Island has its barrack block set lower than its battery. Prior to this the general aim had been to make defensive fortifications big, obvious and intimidating, to discourage attackers. By the mid 1850s it had been realized that given the rapidly improving technology of ships and armaments it was more sensible to hide defensive positions. The forts were completed during and after the period of the Crimean War, during which the efficacy of steam power had become evident. By the time Dale, Thorne Island and West Blockhouse had been completed steam power was beginning to enter the navy.

Vict Def 1856

Local people were concerned by the plans as is evident from a letter of 31st March 1853:

From J.W.Davies of Broomhill Farm to his brother Charles:

They have not begun the works at the Point yet but it is expected shortly the railroad will be opened to Haverfordwest next June so they say but it is doubtful to my mind.

In fact the railway reached Haverfordwest on 28th December 1853. There was a ‘Public Breakfast’ in celebration (tickets: 12/6, Gents. 7/6, Ladies; in those days Gents ate a lot more than Ladies). A selection of important people turned up and the day ended with a firework display organized by a ‘celebrated London Pyrotechnicist’

 Candelabra with caption

General Gordon

That same year Second Lieutenant Charles Gordon qualified as an engineering officer at Woolwich. His first posting was to Pembroke, to assist in the building of the new fortifications around the Haven. There has been much made of the influence of Gordon on Dale Fort. He was definitely involved in drawing up the plans of at least one of the new defences. It is known that Gordon was very unhappy during his time in Pembrokeshire and that he developed his strong religious convictions at this time. A letter from Gordon is quoted by John Barrett in his Plain Man’s Guide to the Path Round the Dale Peninsula thus: I have been doing the plans for another fort, to be built at the entrance to the Haven. I pity the officers and men who will have to live in these forts as they are the most desolate places. Seven miles from any town and fifteen from any conveyance. By April 1854 Britain was at war in The Crimea, alongside the French fighting the Russians in an attempt to reduce their influence in The Balkans. Gordon was posted to The Crimea during 1853. It may be that the early phases of the construction of Dale Fort had begun whilst Gordon was still in the locality. It seems however extremely unlikely that he ever entered the place after it was completed.

gordon just after crimeaGeneral Gordon just after leaving Crimea looking only slightly happier than he had when in Pembroke Dock.

Look out for the next Blog which might well continue this story….